The Effect Of Molecular Genetic Mechanisms On Drug Addiction And Related New Generation CRISPR Gene Engineering Applications

Author:

Number of pages: 50-60
Year-Number: 2021-2

Abstract

Drug addiction causes alterations in gene expression, synaptic function, and nerve flexibility in brain reward regions. Up to date improvements in genome editing technologies, suchlike the CRISPR-related endonuclease Cas9, have accelerated the development of neuroscience by rapidly and efficiently manipulating the endogenous genome of various cell types. CRISPR for the first time generated three epigenome editing platforms at the molecular, cellular, circuit-behavioral levels and performed single chromatin modifications on certain genes in specific cell populations. DNA methylation, histone modification and genes related to reward systems are effectors of the epigenome that have effects on the expression of small RNAs found in various pathways such as aging, memory, and cardiovascular disease. Previous attempts to alter one or more neurotransmitter receptors have had restricted achievement, and so far, no FDA-confirmed drugs are in hand to treat addiction disorders such as cannabis, methamphetamine, and cocaine use disorders. In the near future, clinically effective therapy could be possible with the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The advancement of in vivo neural epigenome editing tools and administrations has been explored to reveal contribution of epigenetics to the pathophysiology of the brain. To date, the drugs that measure phenotypes and epigenetic effects are rather small, and further investigation of these effects is necessary to fully understand the outcomes of developmental exposure to drugs. In this review, we discussed how histone acetylation affects gene expression of brain reward pathways. Recent advances that contribute to drug addiction include epigenetic mechanisms and CRISPR/Cas9 systems to develop new therapeutics for future addiction treatments.

Keywords

Abstract

Drug addiction causes alterations in gene expression, synaptic function, and nerve flexibility in brain reward regions. Up to date improvements in genome editing technologies, suchlike the CRISPR-related endonuclease Cas9, have accelerated the development of neuroscience by rapidly and efficiently manipulating the endogenous genome of various cell types. CRISPR for the first time generated three epigenome editing platforms at the molecular, cellular, circuit-behavioral levels and performed single chromatin modifications on certain genes in specific cell populations. DNA methylation, histone modification and genes related to reward systems are effectors of the epigenome that have effects on the expression of small RNAs found in various pathways such as aging, memory, and cardiovascular disease. Previous attempts to alter one or more neurotransmitter receptors have had restricted achievement, and so far, no FDA-confirmed drugs are in hand to treat addiction disorders such as cannabis, methamphetamine, and cocaine use disorders. In the near future, clinically effective therapy could be possible with the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The advancement of in vivo neural epigenome editing tools and administrations has been explored to reveal contribution of epigenetics to the pathophysiology of the brain. To date, the drugs that measure phenotypes and epigenetic effects are rather small, and further investigation of these effects is necessary to fully understand the outcomes of developmental exposure to drugs. In this review, we discussed how histone acetylation affects gene expression of brain reward pathways. Recent advances that contribute to drug addiction include epigenetic mechanisms and CRISPR/Cas9 systems to develop new therapeutics for future addiction treatments.

Keywords